Paper Title
Resonance Frequency Variations of Metallic Tibetan Singing Bowl with Temperature

Metallic signing bowls are used in sound therapy and in Buddhist prayers are widely studied for their resonance frequency modes [13,2]. Studies have also been carried out to understand the resonance frequency variations effects of the bowl partly filled with water and the resulted changes in the resonance modes were studied without considering the coupling effects of the metal-fluid interfaces and fluid-fluid interfaces[13].Also Nonlinear effects and the temperature variation effects are not considered. In addition Finite elements based models (FEM) have been developed to analyze the higher order modes [2,15] of the bowl. However all these FE models do not consider the torsional mode of vibration and the nonlinear effects due to temperature and fluids even though they are significant in the metallic singing bowls. Also very limited work has been done to understand the temperature variations of the singing bowl resonance frequencies. First part of this paper describes the variation of the frequency modes of both empty and partly filled bowls respect to temperature variations. A significant variation of resonance frequency modes have been observed with the experimented temperatures from C to C, which is the commonly used temperature range for the singing bowls. Also comparison of the simulation results with experimental data are discussed. The second part of this paper discusses a nonlinear FE analysis of the metallic singing bowls with metal-fluid and fluid-fluid coupling layers elements. The simulated resonance modes and the measured resonance modes results are compared in this paper. Index Terms- Metallic Singing Bowls, Structural-Fluid, Acoustic Coupling, Nonlinear Finite Element modelling.