Paper Title
Nanotechnology Graphene

Nanoparticles bearing unique properties have given scope for new nano materials and devices that have enormous applications and extraordinary properties that are unimaginable. We know that carbon comes in many different forms, form graphite found in pencils to the world’s most expensive diamonds. In 1980, we knew of only three basic forms of carbon, namely diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon. Then, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were discovered which are basically sheets of graphene, either bonded on top of each other to form a solid material like graphite, or rolled up into carbon nanotubes or folded into fullerenes. In 2004, graphene joined the club. Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms. It remains capable of conducting electricity even at the limit of nominally zero carrier concentration because the electrons don't seem to slow down or localize. The electrons moving around carbon atoms interact with the periodic potential of graphene’s honeycomb lattice, which gives rise to new quasiparticles that have lost their mass, or 'rest mass' (so-called massless Dirac fermions). That means that graphene never stops conducting. They travel far faster than electrons in other semiconductors. Graphene is undoubtedly emerging as one of the most promising nanomaterials because of its unique combination of superb properties, which opens a way for its exploitation in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from electronics to mechanical, thermal, optics, sensors, bio devices, defence, desalination and mainly in energy related applications like graphene batteries with a cost less than the current lithium batteries and flexible electronics which leads to a whole new world of graphene replacing the existing technologies and materials in electronics keywords- carbon, graphene, conductivity, nanomaterials, rest mass, properties, wide applications